The role of Employment on internal Migration
KIGALI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION
COMBINATION OF EDUCATION- GEOGRAPHY
GEO 303: Research proposal
Done at KIE, April 19 2011 2011
In our country, in order to survive people need employment to have welfare and to serve their problems or to satisfy their needs. In some regions the problem of jobless is continuously affecting the population. This is the reason why people leave their rural areas to look for jobs in urban areas. In our research, we are going to focus on how employment influences the increase of internal migration in Kamonyi district.
Generally, the problem of rural exodus in our country started when cities were being created. In Kamonyi district this problem started in 1910 after creation of creation of Kigali city and after creation of other cities like Huye, Muhanga, Ruhango and Nyanza. During this period many people of Kamonyi district left their district towards cities in order to look for employment or jobs. At the beginning, among the jobs that attracted people, there were construction, commerce, domestic works etc.
The migration at high rate caused later the overpopulation in cities which provoked later the scarcity of jobs and hence consequences like prostitution, bandits, street children, drug abuse etc have raised. In Kamonyi district on the other hand, as a place of origin, consequences like under population, loss of labor force had occurred.
- Statement of the problem
In our district of study, “Kamonyi”, the seeking for employment is a major cause of internal migration towards urban areas. A major cause of seeking for employment in turn, is poverty in the district of origin where the problem of jobless is frequently affecting the social welfare of the people. The problem of seeking for employment in urban areas provides some consequences either positive or negative in the district of origin. Some of them are:
Ø Reduction of great labor force in agricultural district like Kamonyi.
Ø Loss of individual ideas.
Ø Under population.
Ø Improvement of individual welfare once job opportunities are satisfied.
Ø Investment in the area of origin by the migrants once they become highly developed.
Ø Cultural exchange in both areas of origin and destination.
Ø Increase of labor force in the area of arrival.
3. Purpose of the study.
This study aims to analyze how the unemployment motivates the increase of internal migration.
Objectives of the study
The specific objectives of this study are:
a) To find out the reasons that lead people to look for jobs in urban areas rather than their home residence.
b) To find out positive and negative impacts of internal migration
c) To suggest possible solutions against the negative impacts of internal migration.
This research will suggest the answers to the following questions:
1) What are the reasons pushing people of Karama sector to look for jobs in urban areas rather than in their resident areas?
2) What are the negative and positive impacts of searching for jobs in cities?
3) What may be the solution to handle the negative impacts of such migration?
The solutions to this problem may be proved from the following hypotheses:
- The reasons pushing people to migrate may be employment searching, education, holidays, big number of children per family due to uncontrolled births.
- a) The immigrations for job can result consequences like banditry, prostitution, loss of labor force, depopulation, non acceptable cultural exchange etc.
b) The positive impacts are acceptable cultural exchange, development of migrants’ welfare, investment in the area of departure if highly developed etc.
3. In order to avoid anarchies and negative impacts of internal migration, this should be done carelessly, people must be encouraged to control their births, creation of new jobs in rural areas, training on entrepreneurship, government should control the migration (prohibition of illegal migration) etc.
5. scope of the study
This study will cover Kamonyi district of Southern province of Rwanda. The population of Karama sector will be studied through a drawn simple sample. The respondents to this study will be the population representatives elected and contracted in local government at village, cell and sector level
6. significance of the study
This work will help the researcher to fulfill the requirements for obtaining a Bachelor’s Degree.
The report of this work will help the concerned to apply the possible suggested solutions against negative impacts faced by Kamonyi district due to employment searching in cities. It will also be significant reference for future researchers.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter presents the literature about employment and internal migration and the role of independent variable (employment) and dependent one (internal migration). Employment is a major source of social welfare of all human being. By searching for employment, some coming-going movements are occurring. This migration can cause anarchies and some other serious dangers like prostitution, banditry, non acceptable cultural exchange, delinquency etc. it is in this case that migration should be done effectively. It should be controlled so that these anarchies may not arise.
Definitions of employment
An employee may be defined as:
"A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed." Black's Law Dictionary page 471 (5th ed. 1979).
Longman, Active study dictionary, New edition P 238 defines the Employment as when an organization, person or a company pays someone to do a job.
Other definitions of employment
a. The act of employing.
2. The work in which one is engaged; occupation.
3. An activity to which one devotes time.
4. The percentage or number of people gainfully employed: "a vicious spiral of rising prices under full employment" (William Henry Beveridge).
Employment is the debut album by English alternative rock band Kaiser Chiefs, released in March 2005 on B-Unique Records. Employment takes its inspirations from the Britpop and New Wave movements, as well as 70s'-era punk rock, and Beach Boys-esque West Coast music.
Definition of internal migration
Internal migration is defined as a constant movement of population from one part of a country to another within the same country. (GOH, C.L, GILLIAN, C.M> (1973:34). Elsewhere all over the world, people move around in searching of work or homes or to improve their living conditions or areas of the country with better climate.
a) Long-tern internal movements: long-term movements from one part of a country to another are usually dictated by a search for employment or for better conditions.
Lack of land, underemployment or unemployment, low wages, dislike of hard conditions, the attractions of urban life, the hope of better jobs, opportunities for better education especially in developed countries encourage people to move to towns. This explains the natural increase of population and high rate of population growth in cities.
b) Short-term internal migration: workers may migrate within a country seasonally or even daily rather than permanently.
Seasonal movements include agricultural workers who travel about the harvest crops, e.g. in California but are not required at other times of farming year. In developed countries a holiday-making is also a form of short-term internal migration. Some continuous movements also occur. These may be related to a nomadic way of life where pastoralists in savanna may move away from the desert fringes in the dry season and back towards the desert when the rain comes. Itinerant traders may move around the country obtaining employment wherever possible. In Europe, the Gipsies behave in this way. Some specialized workers may also move continually from place to place to do the job which only they can do. (GOH, C.L, GILLIAN, CM, (1973:34-35).
In the context of our research, we use internal migration to mean the movements done by people of Kamonyi district towards different cities of Rwanda especially Kigali, Muhanga, Huye, Nyanza etc in the search for jobs or generally for the purpose of searching good conditions of living.
The role of employment to internal migration.
Data from the European Social Survey 2003 show that about one in three UK residents believe that immigration brings down wages. 45% of the low educated share this opinion, but only 23% of the highly educated.
Opinions relating to the effects of increased migration vary between different social groups. In the UK, 59% of the low educated believe that migration harms the poor more than the rich, compared with 37% of the well educated. About 3 in 4 UK residents believe that all countries benefit if individuals can move where their skills are needed.
Economic theory suggests that in the short-run, and if the skill composition of the immigrant inflow differs from that of native workers, migration may have adverse wage and employment effects for those workers who compete with immigrants.
Immigration may have no effect if the composition of the migrant population resembles that of the resident population. Economic theory is also compatible with no long-run effects of migration, if the industry structure can adjust.
Research for the US and other European countries finds, with very few exceptions, modest or zero effects of immigration on employment and wages of residents.
The levels of education for native born and foreign born workers that arrived in the UK between 1995-2000 were found to be roughly the same: 15% of both native-born and foreign-born workers had high levels of education; while 16% of native workers had low levels of education compared to 13% of immigrants.
Dustmann's study for the UK estimates that an increase in migration of 1% of the native population will lead to an increase in 0.18% of the rate of unemployment for native-born workers. This effect is, however, not statistically different from zero. The largest estimated effect is with respect to semiskilled workers. The study finds no statistically significant effects for other skill groups of workers.
One key conclusion is that more work and better data is needed to assess immigration effects on UK residents.
THEORY OF POPULATION MIGRATION
This theory was developed by Stephan J. Goetz, Penn State University
A fundamental relationship between investment in education (human capital) and migration is at the center of the study by Polachek and Horvarth (1977), which is reviewed in Polachek and Siebert (1993, 242-43):
“Not all (job) search takes place at a moment in time. In most instances search continues throughout one's life. Both job mobility and geographic mobility are examples, as people often view their job or location as a stepping stone for further advancement. Searchers can thus be viewed as 'perspicacious peregrinators' because they seek and weigh information on locational and occupational choices in each time period. Here mobility becomes an on-going rational process in which individuals continually gather information. However, individuals act on this information with a move or job change only when a move is economically efficient.”
In its different forms, (unemployment, underemployment, jobless) the employment affects greatly the internal migration worldwide. The important factor influencing internal migration is a search of employment where people move from one part towards another in order to improve their conditions of living. This study will clearly justify how job seeking defines largely the migration in Kamonyi district towards urban areas.
People of Kamonyi migrate towards cities for the purpose of searching for jobs. Different jobs such as home workers, driving, administration, bar and hotel services, guard and security services, car washing, children care services, trading, cleaning services, carpentry and construction services, customer care services, dry cleaning services, hair dressing services, restaurant services, art and craft services etc are done and help migrants improve their living conditions. However, once jobs are abandoned or not found, the consequences may dangerously arise. Those consequences may be prostitutions, banditry, alcohol and drug abuse, cultural exchanges etc.
III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents an overview of the methods which will be used to collect data at the field. It presents also areas to be covered, the population, research design, sample and sampling techniques and the data analysis.
The study will evaluate the role of employment on internal migration in Karama sector so that the objectives set out by the researcher will be reached.
The researcher will not study the entire population of the whole district. He will include the population of Karama sector, the one of the 12 sectors that constitute Kamonyi district.
Sampling and sampling techniques
In this study, the researcher will use a target population of Karama sector. The total sample size of 112 persons will be used to get information. This sample is obtained by taking individuals representing the population in local government in the following manner:
20 villages and each village is represented by 5 elected personals: 20 X 5=
5 staff members of sector (Executive secretary, in charge of social affairs, in charge of Agronomy, in charge of marital status and in charge of Veterinary) = .
4 executive secretaries of cells (there are 4 cells): 1X4=
1 president of counsel of sector =
1 youth representative of CNJ on sector level =
1 women representative of CNF on sector level =
This sample will ensure a fair representation of the population on each level (from village level to sector level) since their operations and residents are significantly different.
In this study, the researcher will use secondary data collection approach to augment the studies from primary one which will involve the observation, interviewing the population residing the sector and administrating questionnaires.
Data collection instrument
The researcher will collect data of primary source by administrating a questionnaire. The questionnaire will use structured questions, consisting 10 questions divided into 2 categories: alternative questions and short-answers questions.
Data quality control
The elaborated instrument should be reliable to ensure fair data collection. It consists of questions whose answers will provide the concrete facts related to the objectives of this study.
Data collection procedures
The researcher will contact respondents by administrating questionnaires where the respondents will answer to the asked questions. Research himself will distribute questionnaires and collect them after being answered in order to analyze the gained data.
The answers of respondents to both alternative questions and short-answers questions will be analyzed in percentage so that the general conclusion about the study should be drawn.
Ø May-June: review of literature
Ø July: draft literature review
Ø August: Agree research strategy with supervisor
Ø September: organization of primary data
Ø October pilot and review questionnaire
Ø November: administrate and collect questionnaire
Ø December: data analysis
Ø January 2012: final writing of a project report
Ø February 2012: information reporting
· GOH, C.L, GILLIAN, C.M, (1973). Human and economic geography
· Black's Law Dictionary (1979),p 471 (5th ed.)
1. Introductory letter
Combination of Education and Geography
April 4, 2011
To Executive Secretary of Karama sector
Re: Introductory letter
We are hereby submitting this letter under your responsibility for requesting to be admitted to undertake a study on how employment influences the internal migration in Kamonyi district: a case study of Karama sector.
This study aims to analyze how unemployment motivates the increase of internal migration. It is also a project that will help us to fulfill the requirements for a Bachelor’s Degree in Education and Geography. This research will finally help the concerned, government, stakeholder, voluntaries and other organizational or individual investors to contribute to the control of internal migration, provide adequate employment opportunities in order to prevent some anarchies and other serious dangers caused by uncontrolled migrant employees.
The attached questionnaire will be responded by population representatives elected or contracted at village, cell and sector levels.
We thank for your fair collaboration.
Dear respondent, we invite you to fill correctly the form below before answering to the following questions as instructed.
Marital status: …………………………………………
Village: …………… Cell: …………………………….
Phone number: …………………………………………
Position in local government: ………………………….
Section A: Alternative questions
Answer by using a cross in the case corresponding to the better answer
1) Did the population of Karama sector move towards cities?
2) Does this sector receive the migrants from cities?
3) What is the most important reason of migration towards cities?
4) Do the migrants prefer to install in the following cities?
f. Others ……………….. (precise)
5) Is there any benefit from migration on the part of the migration-resistants of Karama sector?
6) Are there any negative impacts of migration in your sector?
Section B: Short-answers questions
Answer shortly to these simple questions
7) What are the important jobs are likely to be found in cities?
8) What are the consequences from internal migration that is facing your sector?
9) At which stage of age people are likely to migrate?
10) If there are some economic advantages of migration gained by the left residents, what are they?